Saturday, March 21, 2020
A Look At Modern Stoning Religion Essays A Look At Modern Stoning Religion Essay A Look At Modern Stoning Religion Essay Throughout history there has ever existed the agencies of cruel and unusual penalties. During the in-between ages the slow and painful method of transfixing 1s enemies took on ghastly popularity. The inside informations of piercing a individual with a long Fe interest are in writing and upseting. So is the cognition that most did non decease instantly, but would endure towards decease for yearss. Work force like Vlad the Impaler and Ivan the Terrible would construct their reputes around their ability to bring down such slaughter. History besides records other penalties like boiling, flaying, evisceration, combustion, crucifixion and decapitation. It is easy to reason that worlds frequently find hurting and ferociousness portion of requital. Modern lapidation has changed little from its long history, get downing in Biblical times. It is without doubt one of the oldest patterns of penalty known by adult male. It has neer been used in the United States, but it is really common still throughout the universe, particularly in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa ( Head, Death by Stoning ) . One fact that stands out in modern lapidation is the figure of adult females sentence to this signifier of decease as compared to work forces. In most narratives and articles the predomination of adult females to work forces seems to lie in the supposed offenses committed that virtue lapidation as the effect. Most of the information on modern lapidating revolves around Sharia Law. This Islamic system of jurisprudence is derived from both the instructions of the Quran and from Sunna. The Quran is the Muslim sanctum book, which corresponds to the Jews Torah and the Christians Holy Bible. Muslims believe that the Quran is the Word of God, as dictated to the prophesier Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. ( ReligiousTolerance.org ) Sunna is in general merely the pattern of populating your life by the illustration of the prophesier Muhammad. Together as the binding forces of Sharia Law, it is every bit powerful as a moral guideline to Muslim s, as the Bible is to Christians. ( ReligiousTolerance.org ) While matrimony and divorce are a big portion of Sharia Law, it is those Acts of the Apostless deemed condemnable that are divided into classs of discourtesies. Harmonizing to writer Lauren Vriens composing for the Council on Foreign Relations, those that hold specific penalties as described in the Quran are known as the hadd. There are five hadd offenses: improper sexual intercourse ( sex outside of matrimony and criminal conversation ) , false accusal of improper sexual intercourse, vino imbibing ( sometimes extended to include all intoxicants imbibing ) , larceny, and highway robbery. Punishments for hadd discourtesies whipping, lapidating, amputation, expatriate or executing. ( Vriens, Muslimism: Regulating Under Sharia ) The Vriens article clearly states that these offenses and their penalties are the most controversial and that when they are exercised it generates media and political attending. She contends nevertheless that few states still work from these outdated manners. It may be merely a few states but in the commentaries offered from so many reputable beginnings, Sharia Law and possibly most notably sex offenses is still really much a portion of the Islamic universe. In a narrative from the BBC in 2008, a immature adult female from Somalia pleaded for her before being stoned to decease. Her offense, harmonizing to governments was an admittance of criminal conversation. Her male parent nevertheless claims she was raped by three work forces and when this was reported she was the 1 arrested for criminal conversation. Numerous eye-witnesses say she was forced into a hole, buried up to her cervix so pelted with rocks until she died in forepart of more than 1,000 people last hebdomad. Do nt kill me, do nt kill me, she said, harmonizing to the adult male who wanted to stay anon. . A few proceedingss subsequently, more than 50 work forces threw rocks. The informant said people herding unit of ammunition to see the executing said it was atrocious . Peoples were stating this was non good for Sharia jurisprudence, this was non good for human rights, this was non good for anything. But no-one tested to halt the Islamist functionaries, who were armed, the informant said. ( BBCNewsonline ) Narrative after narrative reads merely like this one. Womans abused, raped, accused and killed. Many are neer allowed a defence and most serve as object lessons for other adult females and a support of traditional ways, instead than infringing Western imposts. It is of import nevertheless to retrieve that lapidating is non a affair of being anti-Islamic or pro-Western, it is a inquiry of humane intervention and the terminal of barbarous penalty. There is the narrative of Malak Ghorbany who in the summer of 2005 was a 34 twelvemonth old female parent of two. She lived in a town in northwesterly Iran and exhausted yearss entirely as her hubby worked on the household farm an hr off. After hebdomads of hassling phone calls from a adult male she did non cognize, he arrived at her door and pushed his manner inside. While ravishing her, Malak s hubby and brother arrived place. Yes, they chased the attacker and stabbed him 25 times killing him, but they returned to the house and round and stabbed Malak! What is even more disturbing was the fact that in an attempt to salvage the life of her hubby and brother, she claimed adultery instead than colza, to warrant their slaying of the attacker. Her program did work and the work forces were merely given 6 old ages in prison, but in conformity with Sharia Law, Malak was sentenced to decease, by lapidating. ( MacAllen, Cruel Face of Islam ) A world-wide reaction to Malak s narrative gained her the support of Amnesty International and through the aid of the U.N and many organisations she won a stay of executing. In the many beginnings of her narrative I could merely happen the declaration to her instance in one. She received 100 ciliums for her offense and was released in 2008. Still, at any clip her original sentence of lapidation can be implemented. It is clip for the universe to come together and proclaim that lapidating is non merely a flagitious manner to punish, but that the victims tend to be adult females accused of offenses they can non support themselves against. With regard to the civilization of Islam, the greater factor of humanity and civility must take precedency. But what is the other side to the statement, is at that place a legitimate demand for lapidating? While there are infinite web sites, newspaper columns and organisations for the abolition of lapidation, there is really small available resources in support of it. A few recent narratives showed the support of lapidating and rough attachment to Sharia Law by the Taliban and other Islamic groups. In August 2010 the New York Times reported that the Taliban had carried out a public lapidation of a Afghanistan twosome who had eloped. The 25 twelvemonth old adult male and 19 twelvemonth old adult female, were stoned by over a hundred of their neighbours and even household members. Some household had even played a portion in flim-flaming the twosome back to the small town after they had originally left. The adult male who supplied information for the narrative proclaimed himself as a Taliban protagonist. ( Nordland, In Bold Display ) Possibly the support of the Taliban is prompted more by fright than beliefs, but as our attitudes are shaped by our Western civilization and values seeing backup in any signifier seems perverted. My original ideas prevail in the immoralities of lapidation and the demand for its riddance. From the narrative of Malak, raped and so stabbed and crush, to the immature adult female who was non as fortunate in deliverance from Somalia. There is a turning call in the universe and it is the voice that calls for an terminal to modern lapidation.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
How to Cut Down on Your Cars Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases, responsible for global climate change, are emitted in large part from the combustion of fossil fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas. Most of the emissions from fossil fuels come from power plants, but second ranked is transportation. In addition to carbon dioxide, motor vehicles release particulate pollution, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Maybe you have already adjusted many aspects of your lifestyle to reduce your carbon footprint, including installing LED lights, turning down the thermostat, and eating less meat. However, in your driveway sits glaring evidence of one source of greenhouse gas that you could not get rid of: your car. For many of us, especially in rural areas, bicycling or walking to school and to work may not be an option, and public transportation may simply not be available. Do not fret; there are still actions you can take to lower the pollution and greenhouse gas emissions you produce when driving. Fuel Economy vs. Emissions We generally assume a vehicle with better fuel economy will also release fewer harmful emissions, including greenhouse gases. The correlation generally holds true, with a few caveats. Decades-old vehicles were built under much more relaxed emissions regulations and can be prodigious pollution producers despite a relatively modest thirst for fuel. Similarly, you may be getting 80 miles per gallon on that old two-stroke scooter, but that smoke will contain much more harmful pollutants, much of it from partially burned gasoline. And then there are the cars with emission control systems releasing illegal amounts of pollution, like those finger-pointed during the infamous Volkswagen small diesel engine scandal. The obvious place to start to reduce emissions, of course, is by choosing a modern vehicle with the best possible fuel economy. Models can be compared using a handy web tool put together by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Be realistic about your needs: how many times a year will you really need a pick-up truck, sport-utility vehicle, or minivan? Performance is another fuel economy killer, but if you really want a sportier car, favor a four-cylinder model with a turbocharger instead of a larger six or eight (or twelve!) cylinder car. The turbo kicks in on demand, with the more frugal four cylinders doing the work the rest of the time. Manual vs. Automatic Not so long ago manual transmissions provided better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. It was a good excuse for those who love to row their own gears but modern automatic transmissions, which now have 5, 6, and even more gears, provide better mileage. Continuous Variable Transmissions (CVT) are even better at maintaining the engineÃ¢â¬â¢s revolutions at the right speed, beating even the most skilled stick-shift enthusiasts. Older Car, Newer Car Older cars were designed and constructed in the context of emission regulations that were much less restrictive than they are today. Much improvement has been made in the 1960s, with the development of the catalytic converter and fuel injection, but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the soaring gas prices in the 1970s that real fuel efficiency gains were made. Amendments to the Clean Air Act gradually improved car emissions starting in 1990, with important gains made in 2004 and 2010. Generally, a more recent car will have better technology to reduce emissions including electronic direct fuel injection, smarter electronic control units, lower drag coefficient, and improved transmissions. Maintenance You probably heard this one before: simply keeping your tires inflated to the proper level will save you in fuel costs. Under-inflated tires will cost you as much as 3% in fuel costs, according to the DOE. Maintaining proper pressure will also improve your stopping distance, reduce risks of skidding, rollovers, and blowouts. Check for the appropriate pressure on a sticker located in the jam of the driver-side door; do not refer to the pressure value printed on the tire sidewall. Replace your engine air filter at the interval specified in your ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s manual, or more frequently if you drive in especially dusty conditions. The dirtier your air filter is, the more fuel you will use. Do not ignore lit check engine lights, even when you feel like the car is operating normally. Often the emissions control system is a fault, which means you are polluting more than usual. Bring the car to your mechanic for a proper diagnostic, it may save you from more expensive damage later on. Car Modifications After-market performance modifications abound in some types of cars Ã¢â¬â louder exhaust pipes, modified air intakes, reprogrammed fuel injection. All those features increase your engineÃ¢â¬â¢s fuel needs, so get rid of them or better yet donÃ¢â¬â¢t install them in the first place. Larger tires and suspension lifts need to go too. Roof racks and cargo boxes should be put away when not in use, as they severely affect fuel economy, especially on smaller cars. Empty your car trunk too, as it takes extra fuel to carry around that golf bag you never have time to get out, or those crates of books youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been meaning to drop off at the thrift store. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Your Driving Style? Driving behavior is another place where you can make a big difference in your emissions and fuel use without spending any money. Slow down: according to AAA, going 60 mph instead of 70 mph on a 20-mile commute will save you 1.3 gallons on average over the work week. Accelerate and stop gently, and coast while you can. Keep your windows up to reduce drag; even running the air conditioning requires less energy. Letting your car idle in the morning is unnecessary, uses fuel, and produces useless emissions. Instead, gently warm up your engine by accelerating smoothly and keeping a lower speed until your car reaches its operating temperature.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Hospital Financial Management - Essay Example By developing fixed and variable expenses PPD strategies they find it efficient in paying long-term expenses without running out of all the operational cash. During their 1st Qrt, they expected a fixed cost structure of 20% which in actual budget shifted to 19% making a point value of 1. The same way by budgeting for variable cost structure of 80% and gaining an actual of 81% giving them a point value of 1, it means that the operation of the hospital is very strategically planned. The other reason for the better financial performance of the hospital is because of the better turn out of patients both in and outpatient, the benefits are given to them and the services performed. Despite good profit generation from the hospital, it is still advisable that they develop the good strategy based on the indicators shown by the office of the statewide health planning development (OSHPD). The indicators require the hospital financial management to develop corrective measures such as volunteer t ime so that the salaries benefit can be reduced by at least 10%, the need also to give professional training to lower the professional fee they provide for. The hospital management should be determined in developing ways of reducing their supplies from 15% to some reasonable percentage. The main issue the hospital management should focus on to help their performance is the salaries, variable patients benefit, and the supplies they receive. They should develop strategies that enable them to reduce the cost of professionals pays.
Monday, February 3, 2020
Case Study Physical Assessment - Assignment Example the different forms of data and assessment procedures that a health assessment should take, which should follow the elements that Ã¢â¬Å"form the database of the assessment of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s healthÃ¢â¬ as provided in chapter 1 in Jarvis (2012, pg.2). There are two types of data collected, the subjective data and the objective data. The subjective data is collected through collecting and analyzing what the patient is saying while conducting the examination. On the other hand objective data is the data collected by the medical examiner through inspecting, percussing, palpating, and auscultating while performing the medical examination (Jarvis, 2012). While it is crucial for an objective assessment to be conducted, the subjective data that allows one to understand the patient better is essential in understanding the patient better and come up with the best diagnosis as well as the treatment process for the patient. One of the main assessments that need to be analyzed is the cultural considerations of the patient. In the case study, the patient is an African American adolescent that has been exposed to different conditions that are not favorable to the development and well-being of the child. JP lives with the grandmother and was raised in a violent family where the mother and father were in constant altercations. The mother died of Heroin overdose and has also lost his father who died five years ago. These factors affect the normal up-bringing of JP and with the sickle-cell disease that he is currently enduring the cultural background is one of the main factors that will affect his condition. According to Jarvis (2012) the musculoskeletal function is affected by the cultural background and the life of the patient. According to Jarvis chapter 15, the musculoskeletal system Ã¢â¬Å"provides locomotion, an upright posture, and protection for the bodyÃ¢â¬ (Jarvis, 2012, pg. 177). In this regard looking at JP is African-American the muscles are deemed to be different and hence the
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Comparison of Operating Systems Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to clearly distinguish the Comparison between the Linux, Windows Network operating System and Amoeba Distributed operating System. This paper explains clearly about the network operating systems like Linux, windows 2000 and Amoeba, Amoeba can be described as an example of a distributed operating system. Starting from the Linux operating system, this paper describes the Linux operating system evolution, architecture. It also tells the list of Pros and Cons of the Linux operating System and Features involved in that OS. Windows 2000 is one of the powerful operating system in the world. However, This paper also concentrate on Windows 2000 OS with explanation of the architecture, advantages, disadvantages and security of the Windows 2000 .Finally, we discussed about Amoeba distributed Operating System and what are the features of the Amoeba and Understanding the architecture of the Amoeba Distributed Operating System. Introduction: An operating system(OS) is a program designed to run other programs on a computer . Operating system runs automatically when the user power switches on and it stops running on the computer when the power switch off. It is act as an interface between user and the CPU. Operating system controls the external devices that are connected to the computer and it can manage files on the computer. Operating system can perform the things like taking the input from the external devices like keyboards, printers, scanners and display the output on computer monitor. By this we can say that it is an inter face between user and the CPU. Responsibility of Operating system is to make sure that both programs and users do not interfere when both the running at the same time. This is also responsible for not to access the system by unauthorized users. Above figure shows the how the operating system connects to the external device and how the devices are controlled by the Operating System . These are classified depending on the number of users or tasks using the operating systems. Multi-User: It enables two or more users can run the programs at the same time. Multitasking: It enables doing one or more tasks at same time. It is very good method to utilise the time effectively. Multiprocessing: It allows running the same program on different CPUs. Multithreading: It enables that the program in different locations to run at same time. Real-time operating systems: This is for real time applications and in this Operating system. It will respond to input and process the program at the same time. Most popularly used Operating Systems are Windows 2000, Windows XP and Linux. Operating systems can also be classified as network Operating System and Distributed operating System Network Operating System: In this Operating System more number of activities controlled across a network. Some of the network operating systems are UNIX, Linux and Microsoft windows 2000 server. It supports workstations (WS) and personal computer. Examples of network operating systems are LAN and MAN Distributed Operating System: It is a collection of independent computers that appears to be a single system to the users. One of the Examples of distributed operating system is amoeba. LINUX: It is an operating There are several Operating systems available these days.system (OS) that controls your computer. Linux is the one of the most popular Network Operating System used now days. Linux is basically from the UNIX. If we write any program for UNIX it is also run on the Linux. Difference between UNIX and Linux is Linux comes with GPL license and UNIX comes with BSD-Style license. Linux consisting of all the features of UNIX and it is suitable for both high end servers and middle range servers. Linux is an open source Operating system in the sense people can change, adopt and fix. Linux provide not only the operating system but also some support, updates and provides everything to users. Some peoples think that Linux is difficult because of the complicated commands and It is not user friendly. Those who knows the UNIX they can understand the Linux than the beginners .beginners confused about the Linux due to complicated commands. Figure 2 Conceptual Structure of the Linux Kernel The above figure shows the architectural view of the Linux Operating System. There are three major things in the things in the architecture firstly is the user program, second is the kernel, third one is the hardware. We can simply say that there are two major parts in the architecture: Shell: The functionality of the shell is translate the user commands into kernel Kernel: In 1991 Linux kernel was developed by Torvalds. At first there was a Linux 0.02 is released after three years Linux 1.0 is released. In 1995 Linux kernel 2.2 is released with some improved features like IPv6, support for variety of Intel chips and file system with improved range . This is composed of process manager, virtual file system (VFS), memory manager and abstract network services. Kernel is directly interacting with the hardware. Process Manager: Process manager mange the process, how the process are scheduled. For example if two processes are there it will manage those two processes by implementing the priority technique. Parent -child relationship is also managed by the process manager. Memory Manager: It will manage the memory in the operating system. For example if one process requires more memory than physical memory for execution or programs then it implements the concept of virtual memory. Virtual File System: Linux support more number of file systems. Virtual File System manages the controlling of file access and directory. Abstract network services: Linux is also support some network requirements such as sockets and TCP/IP networking. Linux Operating system is a monolithic structure because of any module in the Linux can exchange the information with the other modules. The main thing in the above fig1 is mapping of kernel source code to the program module. Source code for the process manager is Init/; this is a directory consist of initialization code for kernel. Source code for Memory manager is Mm/ .It consists of memory manages codes. Virtual file system composed of Fs/ source code .It contains all the file system codes and Drivers/ consists of all device driver codes. Finally Abstract Network Services has a source code of Net/ .It is a directory with Kernels networking codes. Linux kernel does not have Modifiability capacity because if we modify anything in the kernel that may affect the other parts of the kernel and we can say it is also not suitable for re-usability because of file systems are integrated into the kernel. Linux is different from the other Operating system in two main aspects those are: firstly, Linux operating System can work on any other computer models for example Windows 95 and Windows 98 can run on only if the CPUs have the Intel architecture but Linux can run on any other platforms. Second one is the Linux Operating System software is free. If you want to use the Linux you can get the Linux for free but if u wants Linux with some special application you have to pay something to obtain the software. Linux applications are in open source form this enables users to modifies and improve them. Linux features and performance: Linux has some attractive features like: It is open source It has multi processing capabilities Very wide range of hard ware compatibility High performance Millions of installed base It consist of IP Security and IPV6 Linux Advantages and disadvantages: Linux has some of the good pros and cons those are Linux Advantages: Linux is free: You do not have to pay anything for the Linux software. Linux is portable: If anyone bought a new PC without knowing which Operating System runs on that computer? They can use the Linux because of the portability option. Linux was made to keep running: We can keep running the Linux day and night for completing the tasks .by this we can save some time. Secure and Versatile: Linux is more secure like a firewall. Scalable: In Linux you can add and remove whatever you want it fits all of them. Linux had short debug times Linux Disadvantages: Linux is not user friendly: Linux have some complicated commands and problem for beginners. Too many distributions Strengths and Weakness of Linux: Strengths: Linux is powerful operating system with stability. Cost of the Linux is low compare to others. could be use as server. It is Open source. Weaknesses It is less user friendly than windows. Complexity of commands Fewer desktop titles than windows. Hard to install a Linux operating in system. Application of Linux: Linux provides database and trading services to the online book shops and US post offices. Internet providers and ISPs are used Linux as proxy, firewall and web server WINDOWS 2000: Windows 2000 professional is a powerful operating system with 32 bit and it is also solid. Two main things in windows 2000 are server and professional. These two are come from Microsoft family but applications are different. Windows 2000 server does everything what windows 2000 professional do. Windows 2000 server is designed for to run the application on server .windows 2000 professional takes all the advantages from the Windows NT and some extra features are also added to improve the operating system. Windows 2000 Architecture: Windows 2000 architecture is consisting of client/server, layered and objects oriented principles. Architecture of windows 2000 was developed by layered approach. In layered approach code in each layer can access only by the layer below to that. By this approach we can improve the operating system because if we change any layer on operating system it does not affect the other parts of the operating system. Windows 2000 architecture was developed by C language code. So, a window 2000 is portable. In this Operating system debugged from staring layer to the end layer. The above Architecture consists of two main modes those are: user and kernel modes. Kernel mode: Kernel is the heart of the operating system. It is responsible for scheduling the events .kernel mode composed of hardware abstraction layer (HAL), Micro kernel and executive services. Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): It is in between hardware and kernel. HAL controls the all activities between Kernel and the hard ware in operating system. HAL directly interact with the hard ware for any manipulations. Windows 2000 has a capability of running multiprocessor on computer by using HAL .It abstract the hard ware from kernel and no need to know what type of hard ware used. Microkernel: It provides time -slice between multiprocessor and handling of interrupt, threads. When the system startup it takes information of which devices are loaded into system from registry. Executive services: It contains the I/O manager, cache manager, Virtual memory manager, file systems, object management and process or thread management. I/O manager controls the I/O operations between user applications and hard disk. It is manage the all information coming from any device to computer. I/O manager subdivide into some more sections Figure (4). Input/Output Manager Components in It contains cache manager, file system, network drivers and device drivers. Cache manager controls how the disk cache works. File system take care of all files in the system .network drivers manages network protocols in the I/O manager and finally device drivers controls all the devices like keyboard ,mouse and hard disk. Object manager in executive manages objects that are used by windows 2000 and it can also extend to another object. Process manager manages all the activities done by the processes. Security reference monitor watch if any unsecured thing comes into the computer. Windowing and graphics system: It uses Graphic User Interface (GUI) to provide all the graphics to computer. User Mode: This mode consists of service, environment sub systems, system process and applications. System processes : It contains logon process, session manager and service controller. Services : It support services like event logger, remote procedure call, alerter and replicator Applications : It provides user applications like MS-DOS, POSIX and WIN32. The subsystems are again separated into another two parts in user mode .Those are environmental subsystems and Integral sub system. Environmental Sub systems: This provides application program interface (API) to the services. POSIX, OS/2, WIN32 are the environmental subsystems in windows 2000 Operating system. It can support other types of applications to windows 2000 by using the client /server architecture. In the environmental subsystems applications are clients and subsystems are servers Integral sub systems: Integral subsystem performs functions like creating windows and opening files by calling the WIN32 applications. It has components like virtual memory manager, processor manager, I/O system manager and cache manager. Windows 2000 features: It is Multi processor supports. It supports more number of programs and it will be user friendly. This is runs totally in protected mode. It had full user level security It supports NTFS, FAT FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 Benefits: Compatible and Stable OS. It consumes low time to for troubleshooting. Greater performance compared to the Windows 95 and More flexible of operations. Windows 2000 weakness: Less security : Windows 2000 operating system is affected by viruses and an attack on The Operating system is possible. Not every windows 95/98 programs will run. If a program writes to run on only 95/98 this program cannot run on the windows 2000. Windows 2000 is not an open source. As compare Linux it is not open source. Windows 2000 security Features: Windows 2000 provides authentication, data integrity : Authentications is provided by the using the authentication protocol Kerberos. Secure communication: It is provided by using the Secure Socket layer protocol. Differences between Linux Vs Windows 2000 Operating System. Linux Operating system Windows 2000 operating system More reliable .It is an open source Operating System Price of the software is free. ease of use Some companies now also do not offer drivers. Better secured Less percentage of people know all about Linux. less reliable compared to Linux It is closed source Microsoft Windows software license cost varies between 50 to 150 US dollars. Much easier compared with Linux. It is Better Hardware support. windows is not secure compared with Linux. and Still Attacks possible. More people using the Windows Amoeba: From the years of 1990s the distributed operating system was came into vision by the idea of S. Tanenbaum at the Vrije Universiteit by the Centre of Computer Science and Mathematics department in Amsterdam doing research for distributed operating system. The aim of this distributed operating system is to connect many computers together. In this, Amoeba operating system the work (or) task was distributed between the processor pools. The user doesnt know where the execution of the files is going to do because the system share this files in the network with other to gain high performance. Design Goals: The design goal of Amoeba based on four; 1. Distribution connecting many machines together 2. Parallelism multiple CPUs allows using for individual jobs 3. Transparency It will act like a single system 4. Performance it is an efficient manner It was a distributed system, multiple machines which are not same and connected together. ameoba was connected in LAN. It uses a high performance FLIP network protocol for LAN communication. If the machine is having more than one interface then it automatically uses the FLIP network interface for communication. Ameoba also supports for parallel system. By this, one job can be divided by the other processors to gain high speed in performance. It is transparency. The user doesnt know where the files are storing and the location of CPUs. It will automatically replicates and handle the issues like file by the users. Last but not least, is Performance; it has some minimal delays in sending and receiving the files between the machines to machine in high bandwidth. System Architecture: Amoeba operating system was designed based on the single microcomputer, of the recommended software for the minimum configuration. 1. Workstation(WS). 2. Processor pool(PP). 3. Servers. 4. Gateways. A typical Amoeba operating system will consists of three main functional classes of machine. First class, belongs to completely user interface and it doesnt do any other computing. The workstation used for running is X windows system. The second class is pool of processors; it can be the part of multiprocessors or multi computers and it have megabytes of private memory and it is shared by processors. LAN communication is done by the processor pool. Figure 5.System Architecture Third class is for specialized servers such as file and directory servers and it completely dedicated to hardware. All this three classes are connected to the fast LAN. Fundamental Concepts: (1)Microkernel and Server Architecture: It is designed with microkernel architecture. In this very operation is goes through the kernel even the I/O and memory management so everything is build on the basis of kernel to give the user space server processes. Some of the user processes runs the application programs and such processes are called clients. Basic function of microkernel is to communicate the client and servers with each other. 2.Threads: In many operating systems, single thread of control is present but in amoeba operating system each process handle as its own thread that means it contains multiple threads. By using this multiple it makes easy in distributed and parallel computing because each process is handle by each thread and all processes are passed through the common block of cache uses synchronization. Kernel allows some threads to access the memory management services. Remote Procedure Call: The basic mechanism used for communication is Remote Procedure Call, because each process as to communicate with each other if they are in same shell or block is easy, if they are in different places then RPC is used for communication and special library procedures are called as stubs and these are used for RPC. Amoeba uses a special language called AIL (Amoeba Interface Language) and this automatically produces stub. Figure (6) Remote Procedure Control Group Communication: By this function so many problems in distributed and parallel programming are solved due to many applications need to communicate with each other while sending and receiving the data what they are exactly sending for them in same order. Objects and Capabilities: When an object is created, server will create a 128 bit value called capability. It prevents in cryptographically from tampering. Memory Management: It is not having paging and swapping. If one process is executing and other are in memory by this it gives high performance and other Disadvantage is uses larger than physical memory. I/O: This function is also handled by kernel threads. OUTSIDE THE KERNEL: Bullet File Server: It is designed with high performance so it called as Bullet server. It stores files continuously on the dicks and cache memory, the minimum requirement of ram is 16MB if more RAM is there it gives more performance. If user requests a file it sends the file in a single RPC. Figure (7). Bullet Server Memory Directory Server: In comparison to the other operating system, amoeba operating system doesnt handle all functions like other OSs. In this Bullet server just save the files, its main function is to read, write and save the files to the disks but it doesnt rename the file name. It having a hierarchical file systems built easily and general structures. By this function it gives high availability to the user and avoids the replications. Compilers: Amoeba having some standard compilers likes ANSI, C, PASCAL, MODULA 2, BASIC, FORTAN 77 and GNU C compiler. Parallel Programming: It uses a new language for parallel programming called as Orca, which allows users to define their data types which based on Object-based distributed over a LAN. Orac uses the Amoeba IPC facilities make them to share the software objects over the network in efficient manner. Utilities: Amoeba offers utilities that work with UNIX for highly parallel configuration manager. Emulation of UNIX: To execute the UNIX programs in Amoeba it uses an Ajax offers POSIX P1003.1 by this function simply compiles the program and link to Amoeba. TCP/IP: Although it uses a FLIP protocol for communication, by using a special Server it connects to the TCP/IP through RPCs for internet accessing. X Windows: X Windows X11R6 is the special workstation for Amoeba RPC for Communication by using X Windows it can interface to the TCP/IP server. Connection to UNIX: By using a special driver SunOS 4.1.1 it allows the UNIX programs to Communicate with amoeba programs. Weakness of Amoeba: It is does not having any virtual memory. No binary compatibles to UNIX. Amoeba is not a NFS support. It doesnt have a enough memory. It is not a well polished system. Best for experimenting Supplies a1000 pages of documentation Conclusion: Finally we conclude that both Windows and Linux are the standard operating systems. First version of the windows provides the graphical user interface (GUI). Windows 2000 is yet to be used as best server Operating system. Windows 2000 has better permanence, Improved reliability, easy to install and improve system recovery .we can create multiple user accounts in windows 2000 .Linux is fast developed operating system. It is open source we can improve the code by modification. There is no restriction on that but windows 2000 Operating system is not an open source. In some aspects windows 2000 is better than Linux like Windows is a user friendly, no Complicated commands and looks better in appearance. This is best used for Personal computers, Home computers and small office network computer .On the other aspects Linux operating system is best. Linux has better security compare to Windows 2000. In big enterprises we can use Linux for networking .Linux is stable and has networking ability . Both operating systems are widely used but depending on our applications we can choose the Operating system. Amoeba Operating System is having the transparency in work, reliable, it using the Microkernel to increase the speed of the system by user interface. Ameoba also supports for some heterogonous systems. It is free to universities but they need an internet connection to access but they charge $500 for the manual set of documents and it also not a well polished system, it supports for both UNIX programs and X Windows for TCP/IP connection.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
A Life worth Fighting For There are many babies that are born early; many mothers do everything they can to stay pregnant until at least 27 weeks. There are just some things that can't be stopped. There are many families that rely on insurance companies to help out with that cost, but more and more insurance companies are trying to or are turning down premature babies that are born before 27 weeks. Should insurance companies be able to turn down a premature baby because of the risk of being sued? Many hospitals even have doctors that will not help the baby if the insurance will not help out.Many mothers cannot control when they have a baby. There are many hospitals that even tell the mothers that she is fine and that she is just having Braxton Hicks, but in all honestly she is having actual contractions. There are Terbutaline shots that doctors could use to help stop the contractions if they would actually listen to women. There are also different procedures that can be done to stop from someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s water breaking. There are more and more insurance companies, especially private companies that are trying to turn down babies that are born before 27 weeks.Private insurance companies sometimes have lower deductibles, but there are a lot of things that they are trying to leave out so they do not have to cover. Companies think that preemies before 27 weeks are a liability and if they helped cover the charges and the baby did not make it that the family would go after them and put them out of business. Sadly many companies are finding that either way they can get sued. There are insurance companies that are turning down preemies; making it so the child does not have a fighting chance at life. With insurance companies turning down preemies, the companies should help pay for abortions.The companies are pretty much stating they rather a fetus not have a chance than to try and help pay for a preemie or a child with a down syndrome. There are some states like Oregon a nd Arizona (Abortion Facts) that have abortion laws that are banning abortion, if a state is going to ban abortion than they should make all the insurance companies that are used in that state cover an infant no matter what. Many insurance companies especially private ones are at a higher liability with covering a child born before 27 weeks. There are some many risks that insurance companies could be faced with.For a premature baby to stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for even two days the hospital bill would range from $25,000 to a $100,000. Many insurance companies don't see any type of outcome from that. They think that a family with a low deductable should have to pay more each month for insurance if the family expects them to pay that much for their child. There are also many Ã¢â¬Å"big namedÃ¢â¬ companies that think spending that much on a baby is ridiculous. Yes, to someone that child may be their only child or only chance at having a baby. Insurance companie s look at the long run.Either the deductable is going to go up or the monthly payment is going to go up. Why should we have insurance companies if they are going to have the option of what they cover when the situation arrives? There have been insurance companies that have been sued for babies that do not make it because they were limited the help and the medication the baby was receiving. On the other hand, there are also insurance companies that are getting sued due to turning down a baby and the baby surviving. Many insurance companies if they cover having a baby that early will only support or help pay for certain things.There are a lot of tests like Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (Premature Infant) that the child needs done and insurance companies refuse to pay for but if the child doesn't have the tests done than the doctors don't know what exactly they need to do to help the baby live. Therefore, there are many babies that do not make it due to an insurance company tu rning down certain things. There have also been many insurance companies that have been sued for turning down helping a family and the child makes it. It is neglect on the insurances part for not giving the chance they deserve.There are quite a few doctors (Smith) (Graham) that refuse to help babies that early because of insurance companies, but there are also doctors that believe a child that early does not have a chance. In 2008 Sara Capewell gave birth to a little boy that the doctors had refused to help or send to the NICU because she was at high risk of having a premature baby and they had told her not to have any more children. (Smith) So the insurance companies are part of the reason infants do not receive proper care, and there are insurance companies get Ã¢â¬Å"luckyÃ¢â¬ because the doctor refuses to help the family out.There are doctors out there that are only in the profession for the money. They don't care if they are saving a life or not they just want the Ã¢â¬Å"big Ã¢â¬ paychecks every two weeks. They think that if an insurance company isn't going to help pay for the care of a baby that early than the hospital won't get the money making so they don't get paid. So they turn down families that have no control over the situation. Many mothers are sent home to have the baby so they can have their time with the baby when the infant doesn't make it.How unfair is that to not even give a child a chance because they are worried about not getting paid. Well insurance companies think that they are Ã¢â¬Å"luckyÃ¢â¬ for there being doctors like that. It makes the hospital look bad not the insurance companies. Every child should have a chance to live. If insurance companies are not going to help a family or mother give that child a chance at life then the insurance company should really look into assisting with birth control and abortion fees. Every child has the right to fight for their life and an insurance company should be there to help no matter what the case is.Works Cited Allen, Vanessa. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËDoctors Told Me It Was against the Rules to save My Premature Baby'Ã¢â¬ Mail Online. 10 Sept. 2009. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Facts About Abortion: State Abortion Laws (U. S. ). Ã¢â¬ Abort73. com / Abortion Unfiltered. 10 June 2010. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Premature Infant: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Ã¢â¬ U. S National Library of Medicine. U. S. National Library of Medicine, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. . Smith, Graham. Ã¢â¬Å"England's Healthcare System Allows Premature Babies to Die. Ã¢â¬ Godlike Productions. 08 Sept. 2009. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. .
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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